Modern architecture has become increasingly concerned about the integration and harmony between the natural and built environments. Terms like environmental protection and management, energy conservation, renewable energy, sustainability and ecology have been pouring into our ears on a daily basis. In fact, all these concepts are not new from an ancient Chinese point of view; Feng Shui or more academically, Kan Yu, is exactly the traditional Chinese wisdom aimed at creating harmony between the environment, buildings and people.
Feng Shui is the philosophy which has influenced traditional building design in China for thousands of years. Based on Scientific Feng Shui for the Built Environment: Fundamentals and Case Studies published in 2011, this enhanced new edition has further taken into account the enhancements and new inputs in theories and applications. Emphasis is placed on two themes, sustainability and science. New case studies regarding sustainable design as viewed from a Feng Shui perspective, and integrated applications of different architectural models and their associations with Feng Shui concepts are added and elaborated. On science, other than exploring the new development of particle physics in relation to Feng Shui studies, a totally new approach to numerology and Luo Shu study based on modern linear algebra may bring readers new insight into the possibility of researching Feng Shui mathematically, in addition to the use of spherical trigonometry.
This book offers a remarkable in-depth view of Feng Shui by integrating the historical theories with scientific explorations and examples of applications. It once again demonstrates that Feng Shui can be studied scientifically, and eventually scientific Feng Shui may become a new field of science in the academic world as well as a professional and orthodox discipline of architectural design for the built environment.
Dr Michael Y. MAK
He is a Senior Lecturer and Program Convenor for the postgraduate property programs at the School of Architecture and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Australia. He has been teaching in architecture, building, construction management and property courses in Australia, Singapore and Hong Kong. Michael is the co-founder of the International Conferences on Scientific Feng Shui and the Built Environment, and was the Chair of the Technical Committee of the Conference from 2005 to 2009. He is also the founding editor of the Academic Journal of Feng Shui (www.AJoFengShui.co.nf) since 2013, which is a peer-reviewed open-access online journal that publishes original research articles in all aspects of Feng Shui.
Dr Albert T. SO
CEng, FCIBSE, FIMechE, FSOE, FIPlantE, SMIEEE, SCME, is the founder and was the Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the International Conference series on Scientific Feng Shui and the Built Environment conducted at the City University of Hong Kong from 2005 to 2009. He is an electrical and building services engineer by profession and had been Lecturer/Associate Professor/Adjunct Professor of the City University of Hong Kong. He is now Honorary Visiting Professor of the University of Northampton in England and Honorary Associate Professor of the University of Hong Kong. Currently, he is Vice President of Asian Institute of Intelligent Buildings and Director of Asian Institute of Built Environment promoting education and research related to the built environment.
Readers may have read in our book, Scientific Feng Shui for the Built Environment: Fundamentals and Case Studies, published four years ago, that both Chinese and western cultures have always contemplated the harmony between the mankind and our surrounding environment; the natural environment in ancient times, and the built/natural environment today. Modern architecture has become increasingly concerned about the integration and harmony between the natural and built environments as "green living" seems to be the hottest contemporary topic. Terms like environmental protection and management, energy conservation, renewable energy, sustainability and ecology etc. have been pouring into our ears on a daily basis. In fact, all these concepts are not new from an ancient Chinese point of view; this study in the past was called Feng Shuior Kan Yu more academically, a traditional Chinese wisdom aimed at creating harmony between the environment (both referring to the sky and the earth), buildings and people. It is a philosophy which has influenced traditional building design in China for thousands of years.
In the western world, the popular conception of Chinese Feng Shuiis the practice of doing the right thing at the right place, at the right time and with the right style. The original ancient Chinese term for this study was Kan Yu; the term Feng Shuiis (in Chinese historical terms) a relatively recent nomenclature. ôKanö refers to the observations of sky and climate and ôYuö refers to investigations of the landscape and geography. The expression "Feng Shui" was first used in the classic text The Book of Burial published in the Jin Dynasty, some 1,700 years ago. In direct translation, "Feng" simply means wind while "Shui" means water. Our books could certainly tell you the scope of Feng Shuiis much broader, in terms of dimensions of consideration, detailed contents and the methodology.
Traditionally, Feng Shuicomprises of two schools, namely the Form School and the Compass School. However, the principles and practices of such important schools of thought are complicated, leading to considerable misunderstanding and confusion. To bring Feng Shuiout of the shadow of superstition, it is essential to use a scientific approach to the study of this controversial subject. Basically, the notion of "Scientific Feng Shui" has two implications: the verification of Feng Shuiprinciples scientifically, or the study of Feng Shuilogically in a scientific way and by using scientific methods.
Since 2005, a series of international conferences on Scientific Feng Shuiand the Built Environment had been organized at the City University of Hong Kong and it was moved to Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany from 2010 onward. The history of development of this series is detailed in this book and you may be surprised that the origin of this series could date back to September of the year 1997 when a Feng Shuiworkshop was held in Brisbane organized by both of us.
The aim of the conference series is to provide an international platform for exchanging research findings between scholars in scientific Feng Shui for the benefits of the built environment. In order to reach the worldwide research communities, thirteen high-quality articles selected from the first three years' conference proceedings were compiled into Research in Scientific Feng Shuiand the Built Environment, edited by both of us with additional annotations, and published by City University of Hong Kong Press in 2009. Immediately right after publication, we received concerns from readers that such book is a collection of research articles, and demanding a publication that explains Scientific Feng Shuifrom basic concepts. Such encouraging feedback led to the writing of Scientific Feng Shui for the Built Environment: Fundamentals and Case Studies, also published by City University of Hong Kong Press in 2011 to explain fundamental terms, concepts and theories of different schools of Feng Shui, and to explore the nature of a scientific approach to Feng Shuistudy, illustrated by numerous case studies.
Over the past four years, the authors have got some new research findings that could help to strengthen the interest and knowledge of readers. In this enhanced new edition, besides the philosophy and characteristics of science and scientific methods, comparisons of different cultural and architectural styles, case studies, numerology, modern physics, fundamentals of the Form and Compass Schools, there are enhancements and new inputs in theories and applications.
In this book, the emphasis is placed on two themes, sustainability and science. New case studies regarding sustainable design as viewed from a Feng Shuiperspective have been added and elaborated. Integrated applications of different architectural models and their associations with Feng Shuiconcepts, illustrated by case studies, are included. On science, something new on recent development of particle physics, e.g., the discovery of Higgs particles, has been added. And a totally new approach to numerology and Luo Shu study based on modern linear algebra may bring readers more insight into the possibility of researching Feng Shuimathematically in a new way, in addition to the use of spherical trigonometry. Something new related to the use of Flying Stars method is also added.
It is difficult to prove or verify so many rules and principles in the two schools of thought. Some can obviously be explained by theories of modern environmental science, while others, not so obviously explainable, have to be approached and studied in a logical and consistent manner. Questions on inconsistencies must be raised from time to time and testing must be continuously conducted to get convinced. We wish this new book could once again demonstrate that Feng Shuican be studied scientifically, and eventually scientific Feng Shuimay become a new field of science in the academic world as well as a professional and orthodox discipline of architectural design for the built environment.
We would like to thank Dr. Xin Janet GE who supported our works with her expertise in property research and co-authored two chapters of this enhanced new edition. Also thanks are given to Dr. Dominique SUREL, Dr. Kepa MORGAN, Dr. Michael PATON and Prof. Sai On CHEUNG, who patiently read through the draft version of this book and provided their valuable first-hand reviews. Special thanks are due to Prof. Sritawat KITIPORNCHAI who has encouraged our works for many years and provided his insightful foreword for this book.
Finally, we have to express our greatest honor to have Mr. Derek WALTERS, a globally renowned Feng Shuiresearcher and practitioner, write a new foreword and also co-author one chapter of this enhanced new edition. In addition, once again, Derek, certainly as the third author behind, did spend hours and hours of his valuable time and effort, in between his busy schedule of concert performances in England and lectures in Russia, tendering his constructive comments and suggestions, and kindly proof-read the whole manuscript of this enhanced new edition.
Michael MAK and Albert SO
PART A Scientific Feng Shui
2. Science and Feng Shui
3. Scientific Methods and Feng Shui Study
4. Studying Feng Shui
5. The Development of Feng Shui
PART B Form School Approach
6. Culture and Architecture
7. Theories of the Form School
8. Form School Practice in the Built Environment
9. Conceptual Framework for the Form School Approach
10. Case Studies: Feng Shui Villages in Hong Kong
11. Case Studies: Sustainable Design and Feng Shui
12. Case Studies: Feng Shui Integrated Applications for Built Environment Analysis
PART C Compass School Approach
13. Numerology and the Compass School
14. The Luo Shu and the Modern Linear Algebra
15. Modern Physics and the Compass School
16. Theories of the Compass School
17. The Method of Eight Mansions
18. The Method of Flying Stars
19. Case Studies: Applications of the Compass School
20. Case Studies: Applications of Shared Guas