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無庫存,下單後進貨(採購期約30個工作天)
蓄水庫應變導向水質監測站規劃之研究
  • 蓄水庫應變導向水質監測站規劃之研究

  • ISBN13:9789860413700
  • 出版社:經濟部水利署
  • 作者:逢甲大學
  • 裝訂/頁數:平裝/410頁
  • 規格:30cm*21cm (高/寬)
  • 出版日:2014/05/01
定  價:NT$500元
優惠價: 85425
可得紅利積點:12 點

無庫存,下單後進貨(採購期約30個工作天)

商品簡介

水庫管理單位在污染事件發生時,雖非水質主管機關,但一旦受污染水體流入蓄水庫範圍,可能危害整個供水系統之長期運作,因此有必要建立自主監測體系,以主動因應並及時協調相關單位處置。前述運作機制,除台灣尚屬創見仍待研訂外,集水區監測技術仍有諸多困難待克服,爰規劃本計劃之推動,希望藉由較優的評估分析方法,訂定水質監測站最佳之設站位置與監測項目。本計畫各項工作內容與成果分述如下:
一、文獻回顧:蒐集國內相關法令及國內外水質自動化監測案例,做為監測儀器設置評估之參考。另外,亦進行豐原淨水廠與高雄給水廠訪談,以瞭解淨(給)水廠對於水質問題之監測與應變方法。最後,針對計畫區域進行水利署既有測站合理性探討。
二、探討水庫大壩以上及越域取水口以上集水區各類需緊急應變之影響水質行為所需監測項目,與研析其可提出即時資訊之項目:一般測站監測項目,建議採用大腸桿菌群、氨氮、生化需氧量、pH值、溶氧、懸浮固體與總磷,並增加化學需氧量;自動測站監測項目,則應包含氨氮、總有機碳、pH值、溶氧、濁度、導電度、溫度與氧化還原電位等。
三、建立各類需緊急應變之影響水質行為之監測網規劃與監測作業流程:
(一)監測網規劃作業原則:建議除依照「水體水質監測站設置及監測準則」第二點辦理外,應以河川水質模式模擬,再與實測值做比較,判斷實測值異常高之位置。另外,可反映集水區污染減量與治理成效之下游點、新開發區域或天然災害之下游點、非降雨期間水質監測濃度經常超過標準者、水域生態環境經常有不明原因造成污染事件者等,亦須考慮設置水質測站。
(二)監測網規劃作業流程:於一般測站,應先蒐集欲監測河段之基本資料,再進行既有測站合理性探討與現地勘查,以評估設站位置,最後選擇監測項目。若經費許可,得以設置自動化測站時,需訂定預警值與應變值。
四、即時監測示範站計畫區域研選:先針對石門水庫、翡翠水庫、石岡壩及高屏溪攔河堰等集水區,蒐集地形、土地利用、氣候與歷年水質狀況等資料;接著評估各個可能設站位置之代表性、安全性、可行性及需求性,再進行現場勘查,進行評分考量,最後於各流域選定一處進行AHP選址評估。評估後,選擇石岡壩上游的長庚橋作為示範站。
五、即時監測示範站預警指標之建立:根據東勢大橋水質數據,針對自來水公司、集水區及水庫管理單位與測站維護單位等需求,分別擬定預警值與應變值。訂定預警值或應變值之原則為:(1)以提供給自來水公司為優先考量,其次為上游集水區及水庫管理單位;(2)考量測站位置與取水口之距離,至少給取水單位2個小時進行重覆分析及應變措施;(3)部分預警值設定予測站維護單位,以判斷儀器正確性;(4)部分水質項目無法即時監測,但仍為判斷水體水質之重要指標,將訂定預警參考值及應變參考值,作為集水區水質管理方針及污染管制之重要依據,以防止水質惡化。
六、即時監測示範站測試與運作:採用美國Hydrolab的DS5X多功能水質監測儀,所測得之水質資料透過GPRS無線網路傳送至資料處理伺服器主控站;監測項目包含濁度、導電度、溶氧、pH值、氧化還原電位、水溫與氨氮。監測結果,於濁度部分,由於目前正逢枯水期,有賴後續長期監測資料,才可以較正確評估;導電度、溶氧及pH值,於東勢大橋與長庚橋差異不大;氨氮數據比東勢大橋高,仍需持續監測以了解兩地之變化趨勢。另外由人工水質採樣數據分析後,發現長庚橋與石岡壩採集之水質資料相差不遠,因此長庚橋的水質數據可做為石岡壩之代表。
七、蓄水庫應變導向水質監測站規劃指引作業手冊:為了訂定水質監測站之位置與監測項目選擇規範,做為後續監測站網設立之依據,編訂本手冊。
關鍵字:蓄水庫、水質監測站、即時監測
Abstract
Although reservoir management units are not directly responsible for water quality management, their long-term operation in the water supply system may be jeopardized in the event of water pollution incidents involving the flow of contaminated water into the reservoir storage range. Establishing an independent monitoring system is therefore crucial to enable proactive, timely countermeasures to be undertaken in conjunction with other relevant units. However, such operational mechanisms have not yet been developed in Taiwan. In addition, many difficulties still hinder catchment monitoring technologies. Through the proposed project, we expected to identify optimal locations for water quality monitoring stations and establish monitoring items based on optimal assessment and analysis results. The content and results of the project are summarized as follows:
Literature review: domestic laws and case studies on automatic water quality monitoring from both Taiwan and abroad were summarized to create a reference for assessing the establishment of monitoring equipment. In addition, interviews were conducted at Fengyuan Water Treatment Plant and Kaohsiung Water Supply Plant to examine water monitoring and contingency management at purification (supply) plants. Finally, the rationality of the locations of the monitoring stations of the Water Resources Agency in the aforementioned four catchment areas was explored.
Investigation and analysis of the items to be monitored: Monitoring items at a conventional station are recommended to include coliform, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids and phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand. Monitoring items at an automatic monitoring station are recommended to include ammonia, total organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential.
Establishment of operational procedures for the monitoring network:
1) Evaluation of the location of water quality monitoring stations: we recommend that apart from complying with the second article of the “Water Quality Monitoring Stations Installation and Monitoring Standards,” simulations of river water quality be performed. The results of the simulations can subsequently be compared with the actual values measured from the rivers to identify the locations where the measured values are abnormally high. In addition, the following locations should be given consideration with respect to establishing water quality monitoring stations: downstream locations of catchments that reflect pollution reduction and governance effectiveness, newly developed areas or locations affected by natural disasters, locations where concentrations of water quality measurements frequently exceed standards during non-rainfall periods, and locations where the water ecological environment frequently sustains pollution for unidentified reasons.
2) Monitoring network planning procedures: for conventional stations, basic information about the target river segments to be monitored is first collected, and the rationality of the existing stations is then examined, followed by field investigations to assess set-up locations. Finally, monitoring items are determined. When available funds permit the establishment of an automatic monitoring station, an early warning value and a strain value must be set.
Rigorous selection of sites for demonstration stations for real-time monitoring: Basic data collection in the projected area involving topography, land use, climate, and historical water quality were collected in catchment areas such as the Shimen Reservoir, the Emerald Reservoir, the Shigang Dam, and the Kaoping River Dam. Then the representativeness, security, feasibility, and demands of various candidate locations in the four catchment areas were assessed before performing field investigations for scoring. Finally, one location in each river basin was selected for location assessment by analytic hierarchy processing. In this study, following evaluation, Chang Geng Bridge on the upstream of Shigang Dam was selected as the demonstration station.
Monitoring items at demonstration stations for real-time monitoring: according to the water quality data sampled at Dongshi Bridge, an early warning value and a strain value were determined in line with requirements of the Taiwan Water Corporation, reservoir management units in the catchment areas, and maintenance units. The early warning and response values were set according to the following principles: 1) the Taiwan Water Corporation company is given the highest priority in allocating the water supply, followed by the upstream catchments and reservoir management units; 2) in consideration of the distance between the station’s location and the water intake, at least two hours should be given to allow the water intake unit to perform repeated analyses and contingency measures; 3) the station maintenance unit should be authorized to set some of the early warning values, to determine the accuracy of the instruments.
Testing and operation of the demonstration station for real-time monitoring: a DS5X multiparameter water quality sonde manufactured by Hydrolab (US) was used. The measured water quality data were transmitted to the main data server via a GPRS wireless network; the monitoring items included turbidity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature, and ammonia. With respect to the monitoring results, turbidity can only be accurately assessed through the follow-up of long-term monitoring data, which are currently unavailable because it is the dry season; regarding conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH, no major difference was identified between the values sampled from Dongshi Bridge and those from Chang Geng Bridge; the ammonia data were higher than the peak value sampled from Dongshi Bridge, and consequently the correct unpolluted concentration could not be rendered. Furthermore, the analytical results regarding the quality of manually sampled water reveal that the water quality data collected from Chang Geng Bridge and Shigang Dam were not distinctly different from one another, and consequently, the water data sampled from Chang Geng Bridge can be considered representative of that of the Shigang Dam.
Standard operating manual for contingency-oriented water quality monitoring stations: to establish the locations of water monitoring stations and determine the scope of monitoring items, a manual was compiled as a basis for subsequent development of monitoring station networks.
Keywords: reservoir, water quality monitoring stations, real-time monitoring

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